Dynamics refers to how loud or soft a musician needs to play a particular musical passage. Being one the expressive elements of music, using dynamics in a piece of music may help sustain the interest, avoid boredom by adding variety and also to convey a particular emotional state or feeling. I will not be listing all the dynamic markings but generally, from softer to louder passages, these are represented by p (piano), mf (mezzo-forte) and f (forte). Also, it is possible to gradually change the intensity of how notes are played. If going from louder to softer passages, then this is called a diminuendo; the opposite is called a crescendo:
Mind you that altering the register and the dynamics for an instrument usually changes the timbre of that instrument when playing softer or louder passages, meaning that this is something to be aware of when going for a specific sound or timbre. As said, this variation in loudness allows for changes in mood and thus this element of music should not be overlooked, under the risk of your music sounding flat or lifeless.
Another way that we can work with dynamics is when we relate it with harmonic or interval tension, meaning that this tension can increase (more dissonances), or it can decrease (more consonances):
Working with dynamics contributes greatly to the feel of ebb and flow and the created contrasts will introduce an extra layer of expressiveness in your music.
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